Bankrupt means when an institution or individual doesn't have enough money to pay its debts.
Bankruptcy is a legal process. When an insitution or individual can't pay its debts, all their assets (anything that has value) that can be liquidated (turned into cash) and will be used to pay back the institution's or individual's creditors and possibly shareholders (if there is enough money left).
Beat the Market
Beat the Market means your stock portfolio performed better than one of the major indices, such as the DJIA or S&P500. Another way to say this is that you "outperformed the market."
Below Par is when the amount of money you pay for a bond (Principal Amount) is the less than the amount of money you get back when the bond matures (Face Value). A bond that trades "below par" is also called a Discount Bond.
A bid is the the price where a trader will buy a stock, bond or other financial investment.
Board of Directors
A Board of Directors is a group of people who are elected by shareholders to oversee corporoate policy. They have a fiduciary responsibility, which means they have to act in good faith for the shareholders.
A bond is a type of investment for an investor and a type of debt for an institution. When you buy a bond, you are loaning the institution money and it will pay you back at a later date.
A Bondholder is someone who owns a bond.
A Borrower is an institution or individual who borrowed money. An institution borrows money by issuing bonds or taking out a loan. Another word for Borrower is Obligor.
A budget is the amount of money you can spend based upon a plan.