A Day Order is a type of order that must be completed by the end of the trading day or it expires.
Debt is when you owe someone money. A bond is a type of debt for an institution because it owes bondholders money.
A Discount Bond is a bond where the amount of money you pay for a bond (Principal Amount) is the less than the amount of money you get back when the bond matures (Face Value). A Discount Bond is said to trade "Below Par."
A Dividend is a portion of the company's profits that is given to shareholders.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The Dow Jones Industrial Average, also called the Dow, is a stock index that contains 30, well-diversified, stable stocks. The performance of the index is suppose to represent the performance of the US stock market.
A downgrade is when an institution's credit rating is lowered, which usually happens when an institution is doing financially worse than it once was.